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Computers, Internet and New Technology Laws by Karnika Seth
Trail of the Trolls: Bullying and abuse on the Internet is on the rise, Smitha Verma,The Telegraph
Online censorship is sycophantic, stupid, & unconstitutional, The Sunday Guardian, Dec 11, 2011
Capital cry against Web gag, The Telegraph , Dec 8,2011
Google Sued for Showing Defamatory Results, Rob D Young , Hindustan Times June 23, 2011
OECD GUIDELINES FOR PROTECTING COSUMERS

OECD Guidelines for Protecting Consumers from Fraudulent and Deceptive Commercial Practices Across Borders

Les lignes directrices de l’OCDE regissant la protection des consommateurs contre les pratiques commerciales transfrontieres frauduleuses et trompeuses

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on 30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies designed:

– to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy;

– to contribute to sound economic expansion in member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development; and

– to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations.

The original member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became members subsequently through accession at the dates indicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia

(7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994), the Czech Republic (21st December 1995), Hungary (7th May 1996), Poland (22nd November 1996), Korea (12th December 1996) and the Slovak Republic (14th December 2000). The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention).

ORGANISATION DE COOPERATION ET DE DEVELOPPEMENT ECONOMIQUES

En vertu de l’article 1er de la Convention signeele 14 December 1960, a Paris, et entree en vigueur le 30 septembre 1961, l’Organisation de Cooperation et de Developmental Economiques (OCDE) a pour objectif de promouvoir des politiques visant :

– a realiser la plus forte expansion de l’economie et de l’emploi et une progression du niveau de vie dans les pays membres, tout en maintenant la stabilite financiere, et a contribuer ainsi au development de l’economie mondiale;

– a contribuer a une saine expansion economique dans les pays membres, ainsi que les pays non membres, en voie de development economique ;

– a contribuer a l’expansion du commerce mondial sur une base multilateral et non discriminatoire conformement aux obligations internationales.

Les pays membres originaires de l’OCDE sont : l’Allemagne, l’Autriche, la Belgique, le Canada, le Danemark, l’Espagne, les Etats-Unis, la France, la Grece, l’Irlande, l’Islande, l’Italie, le Luxembourg, la Norvege, les Pays-Bas, le Portugal, le Royaume-Uni, la Suede, la Suisse et la Turquie. Les pays suivants sont ulterieurement devenus membres par adhesion aux dates indiquees ci-apres : le Japon (28 avril 1964), la Finlande (28 janvier 1969), l’Australie (7 juin 1971), la Nouvelle-Zelande (29 mai 1973), le Mexique (18 mai 1994), la Republique tcheque (21 decembre 1995), la Hongrie (7 mai 1996), la Pologne (22 novembre 1996), la Coree (12 December 1996) et la Republique slovaque (14 December 2000). La Commission des Communautes europeennes participe aux travaux de l’OCDE (article 13 de la Convention de

FOREWORD

The OECD Guidelines for Protecting Consumers from Fraudulent and Deceptive Commercial Practices Across Borders were developed by the OECD’s Committee on Consumer Policy, under the chairmanship of Commissioner Mozelle Thompson of the US Federal Trade Commission. They were adopted as a Recommendation of the OECD Council on 11 June 2003.

This book is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.

AVANT-PROPOS

Les Lignes directrices de l’OCDE regissant la protection des consommateurs contre les pratiques commerciales transfrontieres frauduleuses et trompeuses ont ete elaborees par le Comité de la politique a l’egard des consommateurs de l’OCDE, sous la presidence de Mozelle Thompson, Commissioner de la Federal Trade Commission des Etats-Unis. Elles ont ete adoptees sous la forme d’une Recommandation du Conseil de l’OCDE le

11 juin 2003.

Cet ouvrage est publie sous la responsabilite du Secretaire general de l’OCDE.

RECOMMENDATION OF THE COUNCIL CONCERNING GUIDELINES FOR PROTECTING CONSUMERS FROM FRAUDULENT AND DECEPTIVE COMMERCIAL PRACTICES ACROSS BORDERS

THE COUNCIL,*

Having regard to the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development of 14th December 1960, in particular, Article 5 b) thereof;

Having regard to the Ministerial Declaration on Consumer Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce of 8 October 1998 [C(98)177(Annex 2)];

Having regard to the Recommendation of the Council concerning Guidelines for Consumer Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce, adopted on 9 December 1999 [C(99)184/FINAL], which states that Member countries should, through “their judicial, regulatory, and law enforcement authorities co-operate at the international level, as appropriate, through information exchange, co-ordination, communication and joint action to combat cross-border fraudulent, misleading and unfair commercial conduct,” and which further states that “governments, businesses, consumers and their representatives should devote special attention to the development of effective cross-border redress systems”;

Recognising that fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices against consumers undermine the integrity of both domestic and global markets to the detriment of all businesses and consumers, and undermine consumer confidence in those markets;

Recognising that most existing laws and enforcement systems designed to address fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices against consumers were developed at a time when such practices were predominantly domestic, and that such laws and systems are therefore not always adequate to address the emerging problem of cross-border fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices;

Recognising that, despite differing national systems and laws for the protection of consumers, a consensus exists on the need for a common framework to enable the further development of close co-operation among consumer protection enforcement agencies, to tackle cross-border fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices;

Recognising that closer co-operation in combating fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices can lay the groundwork for enhanced international co-operation on a larger number of consumer protection issues in the future;

RECOMMENDS:

That consumer protection enforcement agencies in Member countries, having a common interest in preventing fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices against consumers, co-operate with one another in enforcing their laws against such practices;

That Member countries work to develop a framework for closer, faster, and more efficient co-operation amongst their consumer protection enforcement agencies that includes where appropriate:

  • Establishing a domestic system for combating cross-border fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices against consumers.
  • Enhancing notification, information sharing, and investigative assistance.
  • Improving the ability to protect foreign consumers from domestic businesses engaged in fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices.
  • Improving the ability to protect domestic consumers from foreign businesses engaged in fraudulent and deceptive commercial practices.
  • Considering how to ensure effective redress for victimized consumers. And
  • Co-operating with relevant private sector entities.

That Member countries implement this Recommendation, as set forth in greater detail in the Guidelines contained in the Annex thereto and of which it forms an integral part;

That non-member economies be invited to take account of this Recommendation, with appropriate implementation assistance from Member countries;

DECIDES that the Secretary-General shall keep a record of the consumer protection enforcement or policy agency designated as a contact point, and advise Member countries of modifications to this record; and

INSTRUCTS the Committee on Consumer Policy to exchange information on progress and experiences regarding the implementation of this Recommendation, review that information, and report to the Council on this subject within three years of the adoption of this Recommendation and thereafter as appropriate.<–>

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